Residential End Uses of Water Study (1999 and 2016)
The Residential End Uses of Water, Version 2 is the 2016 companion to the classic 1999 end use study published by the Water Research Foundation. This project serves as a comprehensive update to WRF’s 1999 Residential End Uses of Water study. The 2016 update includes more varied site locations, hot water end use data, more detailed landscape analysis, and expanded water rates analysis. This project focused solely on single-family residences. Both of these studies carefully examined where water is used in single-family homes are the largest end use studies of their kind conducted in North America. The “end uses” of water include all the places where water is used in a single-family home such as toilets, showers, clothes washers, faucets, lawn watering, etc. The official results of the Residential End Uses of Water, Version 2 are available from the Water Research Foundation (WRF).