With rare exception, re-circulating showers are not designed or operate in a water efficient manner. These systems are often called “vertical body spas” and they often use more water than a typical shower or bath. The re-circulation pumps require a reservoir of water in the shower basin to properly operate. Some makes and models of these systems require more than 45 gallons (170 litres) of water in the basin – more than twice the water usage of a typical shower. The user cannot use any soap or shampoo during the system operation; the spray heads would start emitting suds at a very high velocity and may also clog the head. The user must take a “real” shower after the re-circulating shower, adding additional water usage to the event.